Varro insists that the day was sacred to Jupiter, whose control of the weather governed the ripening of the grapes; but the sacrificial victim, a female lamb (agna), may be evidence that it once belonged to Venus alone.[54][55]. Interestingly, when Pompey dedicated his structure, he did so as if dedicating it to the Temple of Venus Victrix that just happened to have a theater attached 9 Phillips, 93–95; Temelini, 41–42. Venus Victrix, Guarapuava. In some Latin mythology, Cupid was the son of Venus and Mars, the god of war. For Ovid, Venus's acceptance of the epithet and its attendant responsibilities represented a change of heart in the goddess herself. Venus Felix ("Lucky Venus"), probably a traditional epithet, later adopted by the dictator Sulla. Many female nudes from this period of sculpture whose subjects are unknown are in modern art history conventionally called 'Venus'es, even if they originally may have portrayed a mortal woman rather than operated as a cult statue of the goddess. A temple of Venus Victrix (Venus 'the Conqueror') was incorporated into Pompey's theatre. [16], Venus Cloacina ("Venus the Purifier"); a fusion of Venus with the Etruscan water goddess Cloacina, who had an ancient shrine above the outfall of the Cloaca Maxima, originally a stream, later covered over to function as Rome's main sewer. There are similar depictions of Venus Victrix on Mirrors in the collections of the Harvard Museum of … Vergil's Aeneas is guided to Latium by Venus in her heavenly form, the morning star, shining brightly before him in the daylight sky; much later, she lifts Caesar's soul to heaven. 205, Issue 205-3, pp. Interestingly, when Pompey dedicated his structure, he did so as if dedicating it to the Temple of Venus Victrix that just happened to have a theater attached 9 Phillips, 93–95; Temelini, 41–42. Venus Victrix. The Theatre of Pompey was one of the most massive constructions of the Campus Martius. January 26, 2021 by Arseny Vesnin in 2021, Art, Portfolios, Sculpture, Italy. Venus Victrix. Caesar may have done this to challenge his opponent for the favour of their patron goddess, particularly since the initial dedication was to Venus Victrix. Venus Erycina("Venus from Eryx"), also calle… The song "Venus" by the band Television from the 1978 album Marquee Moon references the Venus de Milo. [11] In dice-games, a popular pastime among Romans of all classes, the luckiest, best possible roll was known as "Venus". Autores: John Pollini; Localización: Latomus: revue d'études latines, ISSN 0023-8856, Vol. They all celebrate the female body with the same ample forms and modestly lowered eyes. He was initially called Magnus (“the Great”) by his troops in Africa (82–81 bce), and he assumed the cognomen Magnus after 81. Official Video of "Venus" by Shocking Blue. See Eden, p. 457. Orlin, in Rüpke (ed), pp. [44], In 135 AD the Emperor Hadrian inaugurated a temple to Venus and Roma Aeterna (Eternal Rome) on Rome's Velian Hill, underlining the Imperial unity of Rome and its provinces, and making Venus the protective genetrix of the entire Roman state, its people and fortunes. Venus on seashell, from the Casa della Venere in conchiglia. Plutarch's original Greek translates this adopted surname, Felix, as Epaphroditus (Aphrodite's beloved); see Plutarch, Sulla 19.9. 1. Caesar's heir, Augustus, made much of these personal and family associations with Venus as an Imperial deity. It was the largest temple in Ancient Rome. (Editors), Eden, p. 458ff. Menu. Venus Heliopolitana ("Venus of Heliopolis Syriaca"), worshipped at Baalbek. [52], Vinalia Rustica (August 19), originally a rustic Latin festival of wine, vegetable growth and fertility. Venus as a guide and protector of Aeneas and his descendants is frequent motif in the Aeneid. (eds.) [38], Towards the end of the Roman Republic, some leading Romans laid personal claims to Venus' favour. Kitchen gardens and market-gardens, and presumably vineyards were dedicated to her. This was likely in response to his political rivals who objected to the construction of a permanent theater. Roman and Hellenistic art produced many variations on the goddess, often based on the Praxitlean type Aphrodite of Cnidus. This name has attached to an iconological type of statue of Aphrodite/Venus. It was built around 1450 and lies on top of the ruins of the Temple of Venus Victrix of the Theatre of Pompey. [40], Pompey's erstwhile friend, ally, and later opponent Julius Caesar went still further. See James Rives, "Venus Genetrix outside Rome", Sometimes interpreted as Eros-Cupid, as a symbol of the sexual union between the goddess and Anchises, but perhaps alluding also to the scene in the. Florence; Forti dei Marmi and Carrara He finds the Corinthian style, slender, elegant, enriched with ornamental leaves and surmounted by volutes, appropriate to Venus' character and disposition. [5] Her cults may represent the religiously legitimate charm and seduction of the divine by mortals, in contrast to the formal, contractual relations between most members of Rome's official pantheon and the state, and the unofficial, illicit manipulation of divine forces through magic. 5.8K likes. (Rawson 1970). As with most major gods and goddesses in Roman mythology, the literary concept of Venus is mantled in whole-cloth borrowings from the literary Greek mythology of her counterpart, Aphrodite. Another reference to Venus is from Billy Idol's album "Cyberpunk" , in track # 16 titled "Venus". In the interpretatio romana of the Germanic pantheon during the early centuries AD, Venus became identified with the Germanic goddess Frijjo, giving rise to the loan translation "Friday" for dies Veneris. Tannhäuser breaks his knightly vows by spending a year there with Venus, under her enchantment. By dedicating his temple to Venus Genetrix, Caesar could steer the emphasis away from deadly politics and … Today, many of these shops still exist and fragments of the old theatre and porticus can be seen embedded in the ancient walls of many of the buildings. As a "classical" figure for whom nudity was her natural state, it was socially acceptable to depict her unclothed. "[23], Venus Murcia ("Venus of the Myrtle"), merging Venus with the little-known deity Murcia (or Murcus, or Murtia). The theatre was also seen to be a monument of victory as it was decorated with the goddess Nike (victory goddess) and representations of the nations that Pompey had restrained in battle. [42], Vitruvius recommends that any new temple to Venus be sited according to rules laid down by the Etruscan haruspices, and built "near to the gate" of the city, where it would be less likely to contaminate "the matrons and youth with the influence of lust". [48] Her statue was dedicated by a young woman, chosen as the most pudica (sexually pure) in Rome by a committee of Roman matrons. She was also a "Women's goddess". [27] Pompeii's protective goddess was Venus Physica Pompeiana, who had a distinctive, local form as a goddess of the sea, and trade. Aphrodite Urania.). Die Venus von Arles, römische Kopie, vielleicht nach einem praxitelischen Original, im 17. Elisabeth Asmis, "Lucretius' Venus and Stoic Zeus". He claimed the favours of Venus Victrix in his military success and Venus Genetrix as a personal, divine ancestress – apparently a long-standing family tradition among the Julii. Venus Caelestis is the earliest known Roman recipient of a taurobolium (a form of bull sacrifice), performed at her shrine in Pozzuoli on 5 October 134. The renowned Pauline Bonaparte Statue by neo-classical sculptor Antonio Canova has been reproduced in a smaller size without compromising the fine details of the original. 72–73: Lipka gives a foundation date of 181 BC for Venus' Colline temple. 67 – 69: "At the battle of Pharsalus, Caesar also vowed a temple, in best republican fashion, to Venus Victrix, almost as if he were summoning Pompey’s protectress to his side in the manner of an, Immediately after these remarks, Vitruvius prescribes the best positioning for temples to Venus' two divine consorts, Vulcan and Mars. Likewise, Roman folk-etymology transformed the ancient, obscure goddess Murcia into "Venus of the Myrtles, whom we now call Murcia". The ancient city of Rome was designed with covered walkways, public gardens as well as large pools and fountains that were common by the 1st century AD. Eden, pp. [18], Venus Erycina ("Erycine Venus"), a Punic idol of Astarte captured from Sicily and worshiped in Romanised form by the elite and respectable matrons at a temple on the Capitoline Hill. Sulla may have set some form of precedent, but there is no evidence that he built her a Temple. The article argues that the original statue was the one in Pompey's temple of Venus Victrix; both the temple and the statue were destroyed centuries ago. The "Dart Aphrodite": a new replica of the "Arles Aphrodite Type", the cult image of Venus Victrix in Pompey's theatre at Rome, and venusian ideology and politics in the late republic-early prinicipate. The colonnades contained arcades and gallaries that displayed sculptures and paintings collected from years of war campaigns of its patron and builder, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. Venus ist die römische Göttin der Liebe, des erotischen Verlangens und der Schönheit. "[13], Venus Acidalia, in Virgil's Aeneid (1.715–722, as mater acidalia). Lloyd-Morgan, G. (1986). Die untere Reihe bestand aus dorischen, die mittlere aus ionischen und die obere aus korinthischen Säulen. This epithet is also used for a specific sculpture at the Vatican Museums. Her "original powers seem to have been extended largely by the fondness of the Romans for folk-etymology, and by the prevalence of the religious idea nomen-omen which sanctioned any identifications made in this way. [68], Venus is remembered in De Mulieribus Claris, a collection of biographies of historical and mythological women by the Florentine author Giovanni Boccaccio, composed in 1361–62. A festival of Venus Genetrix (September 26) was held under state auspices from 46 BC at her Temple in the Forum of Caesar, in fulfillment of a vow by Julius Caesar, who claimed her personal favour as his divine patron, and ancestral goddess of the Julian clan. [49] She was meant to persuade Romans of both sexes and every class, whether married or unmarried, to cherish the traditional sexual proprieties and morality known to please the gods and benefit the State. This form of the goddess, and the taurobolium, are associated with the "Syrian Goddess", understood as a late equivalent to Astarte, or the Roman Magna Mater, the latter being another supposedly Trojan "Mother of the Romans"[15], Venus Calva ("Venus the bald one"), a legendary form of Venus, attested only by post-Classical Roman writings which offer several traditions to explain this appearance and epithet. The Venus types 'Venus Pompeiana' and 'Venus Pescatrice' are found almost exclusively in Pompeii. Venus was central to many religious festivals, and was revered in Roman religion under numerous cult titles. [citation needed], Venus looking in the mirror, with Cupid attending, painting ca. Venus Victrix ("Venus the Victorious"), a Romanised aspect of the armed Aphrodite that Greeks had inherited from the East, where the goddess Ishtar "remained a goddess of war, and Venus could bring victory to a Sulla or a Caesar. Die cella (Kultraum) wurde dem Theaterrund angepasst. Christian writers described her as a goddess of sloth and laziness. Pompey, Sulla's protege, vied with his patron and with Caesar for public recognition as her protege. Das ihr beigeordnete Tier ist der Delphin, da dieser in der Antike als Symbol für Liebe und Philanthropie galt. In one context, she is a goddess of prostitutes; in another, she turns the hearts of men and women from sexual vice to virtue.[10]. Venus Kallipygos ("Venus with the beautiful buttocks"), worshiped at Syracuse. Sulla had claimed the favour of Venus (his agnomen 'Epaphroditus' means 'favoured by Venus'), and Pompey, as the son-in-law of Sulla, also claimed to have inherited the support of the goddess. [63] Before its adoption into Venus' cults, myrtle was used in the purification rites of Cloacina, the Etruscan-Roman goddess of Rome's main sewer; later, Cloacina's association with Venus' sacred plant made her Venus Cloacina. It was dedicated in 295 BC, at a site near the Aventine Hill, and was supposedly funded by fines imposed on Roman women for sexual misdemeanours. Plutarch notes Pompey's fear of Caesar's superior claim to the goddess: "he feared lest the race of Caesar, which went back to Venus, was to receive glory and splendour through him" (Pompey 68.2). The statue was erected on the spot where peace was concluded between the Romans and Sabines. Venus Verticordia was invented in 220 BC, in response to advice from a Sibylline oracle during Rome's Punic Wars,[47] when a series of prodigies was taken to signify divine displeasure at sexual offenses among Romans of every category and class, including several men and three Vestal Virgins. A separate cult to Venus Erycina as a fertility deity,[36] was established in 181 BC, in a traditionally plebeian district just outside Rome's sacred boundary, near the Colline Gate. Petronius, in his Satyricon, places an image of Venus among the Lares (household gods) of the freedman Trimalchio's lararium. The Senate’s moral guidance felt there were already too many small wooden theaters degenerating the moral turpitude Roman citizens, but Pompey was as shrewd a diplomat as he was a great General. The south foundations of the Temple of Venus Victrix photographed by Antonio Colini (c.1933) During the three decades after Baltard, finds from the Theater of Pompey were, with one exception, largely unrecorded, but, in 1865, there was a second large-scale excavation. In M. Henig and A. The Latin name Venus ('love, charm') stems from Proto-Italic *wenos- ('desire'), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European (PIE) *wenh₁-os ('desire'; compare with Messapic Venas, Old Indic vánas 'desire'). [9], In myth, Venus-Aphrodite was born of sea foam (Greek αφρός, aphros). Rivalling Pompey and his temple of Venus Victrix, Caesar vowed to build his own temple to Venus in 48 BC at the battle of Pharsalus where the two men led their armies into civil war. Venus Cloacina("Venus the Purifier"), also known as Venus Cluacina, was a fusion of Venus with the Etruscan water goddess Cloacina, likely resulting from a statue of Venus being prominent near the Cloaca Maxima, Rome's sewer system. Venus Libertina ("Venus the Freedwoman"), probably arising through the semantic similarity and cultural inks between libertina (as "a free woman") and lubentina (possibly meaning "pleasurable" or "passionate"). Venus was patron of "profane" wine, for everyday human use. [1][3] The Latin verb venerārī ("to honour, worship, pay homage") is a derivative of Venus. venus victrix, honos et virtus, felicitas in pompey's theatre: The Romans loved a good theatre performance but for the longest time would only show such performances in temporary theatres erected for the purpose (i.e. The highest point of the structure was the Temple to Venus Victrix, Pompey's personal deity (compared to Julius Caesar's worship of Venus Genetrix as his personal deity). Ovid uses acidalia only in the latter sense. and Scullard, H.H. For further exposition of. Herkunft. In one, it commemorates the virtuous offer by Roman matrons of their own hair to make bowstrings during a siege of Rome. Venus Genetrix ("Venus the Mother"), as a goddess of motherhood and domesticity, with a festival on September 26, a personal ancestress of the Julian lineage and, more broadly, the divine ancestress of the Roman people. Bird’s eye view of the interior of the theatre. Die Außenfassade der halbkreisförmigen Zuschauertribüne (cavea) bestand aus drei Reihen von Bögen, die mit Säulen geschmückt waren. Pompey the Great's theatre, dedicated in 55 BC on the Campus Martius, included a large temple to Venus Victrix; his rival Julius Caesar vowed and built a temple to Venus in his new-built forum. "[29] Pompey, Sulla's protégé, vied with his patron and with Caesar for public recognition as her protégé. Theater of Pompey, tufa opus quadratum foundations of the staircase that led to the Temple of Venus Victrix, beneath the Palazzo Pio-Righetti. È stato costruito intorno al 1450 e si eleva sopra le rovine della Venus Victrix del Teatro di Pompeo. Caesar may have done this to challenge his opponent for the favour of their patron goddess, particularly since the initial dedication was to Venus Victrix. [35], The Capitoline cult to Venus seems to have been reserved to higher status Romans. It was considered suitable for "common girls" and prostitutes". It’s in 55 BC that Pompey had this theatre erected, which took his name. It is likely a literary conceit, not a cultic epithet. It is notable as the first collection devoted exclusively to biographies of women in Western literature.[69]. The shrine contained a statue of Venus, whose rites were probably meant to purify the culvert's polluted waters and noxious airs. Venus (/ˈviːnəs/, Classical Latin: /ˈwɛnʊs/; genitive Veneris /ˈwɛnɛrɪs/)[a] is a Roman goddess, whose functions encompassed love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity and victory. Caesar's associations with Venus as both a personal and state goddess may also have been propagated in the Roman provinces. Kaufmann-Heinimann, in Rüpke (ed), 197–8. An exclusive piece which is a statement by itself as a centerpiece or decorative sculpture on a mantel. [6][7] The ambivalence of her persuasive functions has been perceived in the relationship of the root *wenos- with its Latin derivative venenum ('poison'; from *wenes-no 'love drink' or 'addicting'),[8] in the sense of "a charm, magic philtre". This was to guide the visitor's sight directly along the inner garden area to the main doorway (regia) to the stage of the theatre and up to the temple of Venus Victrix. a specific sculpture at the Vatican Museums, an iconological type of statue of Aphrodite/Venus, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Venus in Pompeian Domestic Space: Decoration and Context", A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology's, The Roman goddess Venus – highlights at The British Museum, Warburg Institute Iconographic Database (ca 2,300 images of Venus), 'Venus Chiding Cupid for Learning to Cast Accounts', https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Venus_(mythology)&oldid=996427521#Epithets, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles having different image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Articles needing additional references from August 2016, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TePapa identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Diese Form verbreitete sich rasch und hatte noch auf die christliche Architektur Einfluss. Venus Victrix in the Salona Urbs Orientalis. She can give military victory, sexual success, good fortune and prosperity. Under these special circumstances, they could get virtuously, religiously drunk on strong wine, safe from Venus' temptations. Octavian's opponents, Antony, Cleopatra and the Egyptians, assisted by bizarre and unhelpful Egyptian deities such as "barking" Anubis, lose the battle.[60]. Venus Victrix statue after the masterpiece located in the Borghese Gallery in Rome, Italy. [56] The festival's rites are not known. Venus Victrix (“Venus the Victorious”) is the Romanised aspect of the Aphrodite in armor that the Greeks had inherited from the East, where the goddess Ishtar was a goddess of war. O'Hara, J ames J., "The Significance of Vergil's Acidalia Mater, and Venus Erycina in Catullus and Ovid". Lipka, Michael, Roman Gods: A Conceptual Approach, Brill, 2009, pp. In the later classical tradition of the West, Venus became one of the most widely referenced deities of Greco-Roman mythology as the embodiment of love and sexuality. 457 – 8, citing Pliny the Elder. Virgil, in compliment to his patron Augustus and the gens Julia, embellished an existing connection between Venus, whom Julius Caesar had adopted as his protectress, and Aeneas. It was installed in a temple on the Capitoline Hill, as one of Rome's twelve dii consentes. This was likely in response to his political rivals who objected to the construction of A sacrifice was annually dedicated to her on the latter date. Hersch, Karen K., The Roman Wedding: Ritual and Meaning in Antiquity, Cambridge University Press, 2010, pp. A. Lill, "Myths of Pompeii: reality and legacy". In 55 BC he dedicated a temple to her at the top of his theater in the Campus Martius. The rites allowed women to drink the strongest, sacrificial wine, otherwise reserved for the Roman gods and Roman men; the women euphemistically referred to it as "honey". The Romans adapted the myths and iconography of her Greek counterpart Aphrodite for Roman art and Latin literature. 5.8K likes. PDF When he emerges, he has to seek penance for his sins. When Sulla captured Pompeii from the Samnites, he resettled it with his veterans and renamed it for his own family and divine protector Venus, as Colonia Veneria Cornelia (for Sulla's claims of Venus' favour, see Venus Felix above). Its dedication date connects Venus Obsequens to the Vinalia rustica festival. Rome was not build in one day... could you do it with this model? Marriage itself was not a seduction but a lawful condition, under Juno's authority; so myrtle was excluded from the bridal crown. As the ground level rose from constant flooding from the Tiber River, much of the original architectural elements were re-used by shop owners to adhorn their structures at higher levels. Das durch ihn errichtete erste steinerne Theater Roms (-> Theater des Pompejus) war mit einem Tempel der Venus Victrix, der siegreichen Venus, verbunden. The "Dart Aphrodite": a New Replica of the "Arles Aphrodite Type", the Cult Image of Venus Victrix in Pompey's Theater at Rome, and Venusian Ideology and Politics in the Late Republic-Early Principate. Ließ er einen Tempel der Venus Victrix, Guarapuava was patron of the ruins of the heart, sex betrothal..., ally, and was revered in Roman religion under numerous cult.! Venus Verticordia was given her own temple bridal crown for his sins and Sabines the theatre of.... Venus de Milo and Adams, D. Q may also have been in... 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