His "Epistle to the Corinthians" not only tells us that the Spirit inspired and guided the holy writers (8.1; 45.2); that He is the voice of Jesus Christ speaking to us in the Old Testament (22.1 sq. The Greeks have always blamed the Latins for making the addition. (1) In the New Testament.—(a) The Holy Ghost is called the Spirit of Christ (Rom., viii, 9), the Spirit of the Son (Gal., iv, 6), the Spirit of Jesus (Acts, xvi, 7). But how do they differ from the virtues? On the one hand, it expresses the Procession of the Holy Ghost from both Father and Son as one Principle; on the other, it was the occasion of the Greek schism. So, making every allowance for the feebleness of our intellects in knowing, and the unsuitability of our words for expressing the mysteries of the Divine life, if we can grasp how the word generation, freed from all the imperfections of the material order, may be applied by analogy to the Procession of the Word, so we may see that the term can in no way be fittingly applied to the Procession of the Holy Ghost. Photo Credit: Flickr/Arend. In several places St. Paul speaks of Him as if speaking of God. Irenæus looks upon the Holy Ghost as eternal (Against Heresies V.12.2), existing in God ante omnem constitutionem, and produced by him at the beginning of His ways (IV.20.3). We will cite, therefore, a few witnesses from among the latter. ), “founded the Faith of the Church on the Trinity, when He said to His Apostles: ‘Going therefore, teach ye all nations; baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.’ If the Holy Ghost were a creature, Christ would not have associated Him with the Father; He would have avoided making a heterogeneous Trinity, composed of unlike elements. The essential points of the dogma may be resumed in the following propositions: Such is the belief the Catholic faith demands. … No, the Trinity is not composed of the Creator and the creature.” A little later, St. Let us take, for instance, the account given by St. Matthew which is more complete than that of the other Synoptics. In 58.2 (Funk, ibid., 172), the author makes this solemn affirmation; zo gar ho theos, kai zo ho kyrios Iesous Christos kai to pneuma to hagion, he te pistis kai he elpis ton eklekton, oti . Trinitarians identify this name with the Christian faith into which baptism is an initiation, as seen for example in the statement of Basil the Great (330–379): "We are bound to be baptized in the terms we have received, and to profess faith in the terms in which we have been baptized." Long before their time St. . But this immanent knowledge is the very essence of the Holy Ghost. Considered with regard to the Father, the Holy Ghost is His wisdom (IV, xx, 3); the Son and He are the “two hands” by which God created man (IV, praef., n. 4; IV, xx, 20; V, vi, 1). (3) Four charismata that served to edify, exhort, and encourage the faithful, and to confound the unbelievers: prophetia, discretio spirituum, genera linguarum, interpretatio sermonum. But the Greeks, after Photius, deny that He proceeds from the Son. And as he dwells in our bodies and sanctifies them (I Cor., iii, 16; vi, 19), so will he raise them again, one day, from the dead (Rom., viii, 11). Whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them” (John, xx, 22, 23); “But you are washed, but you are sanctified, but you are justified in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the Spirit of our God” (I Cor., vi, 11); “The charity of God is poured forth in our hearts, by the Holy Ghost, who is given to us” (Rom., v, 5). It is St. Athanasius who does so in his “Letters to Serapion” (P.G., XXVI, col. 525 sq.). . What did God stand in need of? . (See CHARISMATA.). While corroborating and explaining the testimony of Scripture, Tradition brings more clearly before us the various stages of the evolution of this doctrine. As we are utterly incapable of otherwise fixing the meaning of the mysterious mode affecting this relation of origin, we apply to it the name spiration, the signification of which is principally negative and by way of contrast, in the sense that it affirms a Procession peculiar to the Holy Ghost and exclusive of filiation. I grew up with the old ways. They form four natural groups: (I) Two charismata which regard the teaching of Divine things: sermo sapientae, sermo scientiae, the former relating to the exposition of the higher mysteries, the latter to the body of Christian truths. This doctrine was defined in the following words by the Second Ecumenical Council of Lyons [Denzinger, "Enchiridion" (1908), n. 460]: "We confess that the Holy Ghost proceeds eternally from the Father and the Son, not as from two principles, but as from one principle, not by two spirations, but by one single spiration." Original at the Chapel of Frederiksborg Castle. cit., xi, in P.G., XLIII, 35): “No one knows the Spirit, besides the Father, except the Son, from Whom He proceeds and of Whom He receives.” Lastly, a council held at Seleucia in 410 proclaims its faith “in the Holy Living Spirit, the Holy Living Paraclete, Who proceeds from the Father and the Son” (Lamy, “Concilium Seleuciae”, Louvain, 1868). cit., I, 330): “Lord God Almighty, Father of Thy blessed and well beloved Son, Jesus Christ. dogm. Thus St. Augustine argues (Tractate 99 on the Gospel of John, nos. Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name; thy kingdom come, thy will be done, on earth as it . in everything I praise Thee, I bless Thee, I glorify Thee by the eternal and celestial pontiff Jesus Christ, Thy well beloved Son, by whom, to Thee, with Him and with the Holy Ghost, glory now and for ever! The author of the addition is unknown, but the first trace of it is found in Spain. If the opinion be adhered to, and it has strong arguments to support it, which considers that the developments of the Creed in what concerns the Holy Ghost were approved by the Council of Constantinople (381), at once it might be laid down that the bishops at Ephesus (431) certainly did not think of condemning or blaming those of Constantinople. Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. No, the Trinity is not composed of the Creator and the creature.". Many other texts declare quite as clearly that the Holy Ghost is a Person, a Person distinct from the Father and the Son, and yet One God with Them. In the Apostles' Creed, the Son is "begotten" (not made) from the Father, while the Holy Spirit "proceeds" from the Father and Son. St. Athanasius had argued in exactly the same way (De Trinit. Formerly that was the common opinion, and even in recent times it has been held by authorities like Hefele, Hergenrother, and Funk; other historians, amongst whom are Harnack and Duchesne, are of the contrary opinion; but all agree in admitting that the creed of which we are speaking was received and approved by the Council of Chalcedon, in 451, and that, at least from that time, it became the official formula of Catholic orthodoxy. I have always wondered what Don McLean was trying to … In this view, Jesus, in Matt., xii, and Mark, iii, did not really accuse the Pharisees of blaspheming the Holy Ghost, He only warned them against the danger they were in of doing so. Forget, Jacques. It is in this sense that we attribute to the Father the perfection of omnipotence, with its most striking manifestations, e.g. Most of these conclusions he supports by means of Scriptural texts, a few from amongst which are given above. They placed Him among the spirits, inferior ministers of God, but higher than the angels. As we are utterly incapable of otherwise fixing the meaning of the mysterious mode affecting this relation of origin, we apply to it the name spiration, the signification of which is principally negative and by way of contrast, in the sense that it affirms a Procession peculiar to the Holy Ghost and exclusive of filiation. Unchanging and immutable Trinity. Sanctification—2 Corinthians 13:14 (grace of the Lord Jesus, love of God, fellowship of the Holy Spirit). As to final impenitence it is absolute; and this is easily understood, for even God cannot pardon where there is no repentance, and the moment of death is the fatal instant after which no mortal sin is remitted. positive (Paris, 1904). What kind of alchohol do you find in church? They are the gifts of wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety (godliness), and fear of the Lord. However, in the Apostolic Age, they were comparatively common, especially in the communities of Jerusalem, Rome, and Corinth. plurality of God within His being. Just as Cyril, Epiphanius, and other Greeks affirm the Procession ex utroque, so several Latin writers did not consider they were departing from the teaching of their Church in expressing themselves like the Greeks. The same arguments drawn from Scripture and Tradition may be used generally to prove either assertion. The theology of spirits is called pneumatology. The faith here spoken of is faith in the sense used by Matt., xvii, 19: that which works wonders; so it is, as it were, a condition and a part of the two gifts mentioned with it. If the Holy Ghost were a creature, Christ would not have associated Him with the Father; He would have avoided making a heterogeneous Trinity, composed of unlike elements. But he operates especially in the soul, giving it a new life (Rom., viii, 9 sq. Tixeront, "Hist. It will suffice here to remark that by this word we mean the relation of origin that exists between one Divine Person and another, or between one and the two others as its principle of origin. He had been informed that certain Christians held that the Third Person of the Blessed Trinity was a creature. Besides, Jesus gives this reason of His assertion: “He shall receive of mine”: “All things whatsoever the Father hath, are mine”. Hail, holy Mother, who in childbirth brought forth the King Who rules heaven and earth world without end. (See The Blessed Trinity.) St. Thomas, whom we may safely follow, gives a very good summary of opinions in II-II, Q. xiv. (4) Lastly there remain the charismata that seem to have as object the administration of temporal affairs, and works of charity: gubernationes, opitulationes, distributiones. Had been informed that certain Christians held that the Third Person of the Son Holy! 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